Henry Kim*, Louis Kretz*, Céline Ronin*, Christina Starck*, James A. Roper, Barbro Kahl-Knutson, Kristoffer Peterson, Hakon Leffler, Ulf J. Nilsson, Anders Pedersen, and et al. 

Int. J. Mol. Sci.
 202425(12), 6704
, First published 18 June 2024

The beta-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin galectin-1 can bind, via its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), to various cell surface glycoproteins and has been implicated in a range of cancers. As a consequence of binding to sugar residues on cell surface receptors, it has been shown to have a pleiotropic effect across many cell types and mechanisms, resulting in immune system modulation and cancer progression. As a result, it has started to become a therapeutic target for both small and large molecules. In previous studies, we used fluorescence polarization (FP) assays to determine KD values to screen and triage small molecule glycomimetics that bind to the galectin-1 CRD. In this study, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to compare human and mouse galectin-1 affinity measures with FP, as SPR has not been applied for compound screening against this galectin. Binding affinities for a selection of mono- and di-saccharides covering a 1000-fold range correlated well between FP and SPR assay formats for both human and mouse galectin-1. It was shown that slower dissociation drove the increased affinity at human galectin-1, whilst faster association was responsible for the effects in mouse galectin-1. This study demonstrates that SPR is a sound alternative to FP for early drug discovery screening and determining affinity estimates. Consequently, it also allows association and dissociation constants to be measured in a high-throughput manner for small molecule galectin-1 inhibitors.

* authors from NovAliX